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Operator Overloading
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## Privileged Access to more than One Class

A function multiplying a vector by a matrix, as represented by these two classes, could be written efficiently if it had access to the

`private`

members of both classes.
It would be a `friend`

function of both classes.
class matrix; //forward reference class vect { public: friend vect mpy(const vect& v, const matrix& m); ..... private: int* p; int size; }; class matrix { public: friend vect mpy(const vect& v, const matrix& m); ..... private: int** p; int s1, s2; };

vect mpy(const vect& v, const matrix& m){ assert(v.size == m.s1); //check sizes //use privileged access to p in both classes vect ans(m.s2); int i, j; for (i = 0; i <= m.s2; ++i) { ans.p[i] = 0; for (j = 0; j <= m.s1(); ++j) ans.p[i] += v.p[j] * m.p[j][i]; } return ans; }

A minor point is that a forward declaration of the

`class matrix`

is necessary.
This is because the function `mpy()`

must appear in both classes, and it uses each class as an argument type.