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Structured Programming Fundamentals - Glossary

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Edsger W. Dijkstra's letter to the Editor of Communications of the ACM, published in March 1968, marks the true beginning of structured programming. Structured programming can be seen as a subset or subdiscipline of imperative programming, one of the major programming paradigms. It is most famous for removing or reducing reliance on the GOTO statement. Edsger Dijkstra's subsequent article,
Go To Statement Considered Harmful
was instrumental in the trend towards structured programming.
Description of the inverse relationship between a programmer's ability and the density of goto statements in his program is repeated.
Algorithm
A set of ordered, unambiguous instructions that completes a specific task in a finite number of steps.
Array
A collection of items called elements, each of which is of the same type.
Array initializer
Specifies the initial values of the elements of an array.
ASCII
A 7-bit character encoding.
Binary number system
Base 2 number system.
Bit
A single binary digit.
Block statement
A sequence of statements enclosed within curly braces.
Boolean expression
An expression with a value of true or false.
Bubble Sort
An algorithm for sorting data.
Byte
A sequence of 8 bits.
Bytecode
Machine code for the Java Virtual Machine.
Call a method
Execute the statements within the method declaration.
Cast
Explicit conversion from one data type to another.
Command-line argument
A text string provided by the user when running a program from the command-prompt.

Comments
A form of documentation used to clarify source code.
Compiler
Translates source code into machine code.
Computer program
A set of instructions used in a computer to bring about a specific result.
Data type
Indicates how to interpret the value of a variable.
Decimal number system
Base 10 number system.
Decision
Control flow construct in which a task is performed conditionally. Also referred to as selection.
Floating-point number
Used to represent a real number on a computer.
Glossary
Each time you click a glossary term, you will see a window like this one displaying the term and its definition. To see the entire glossary, click "Show All Terms."
Hexadecimal number system
Base 16 number system.
Indentation
Used to improve readability of source code.
Interpreter
Translates source code into machine code, executing the resulting machine code as it is generated.
Java 2 SDK
Java 2 Software Development Kit. A software development environment for Java including a collection of software components, a Java compiler, and a Java program launcher.
Java compiler
Translates Java source code into bytecode.
Java interpreter
Runs a Java program. Translates bytecode into machine code for a particular machine.
Local variable
A variable declared within a block or in the initialization part of a for statement. Most often used to describe a variable declared within a method.
Loop
A set of statements that is executed repeatedly.
Machine language
The language understood by the computer. Also known as machine code or binary code.
Method
A named reusable block of code.
Operator precedence
Determines the order in which operations are performed.
Parameter
A value passed to a method.
Psuedocode
Form of structured English used to describe the logic of a program.
Repetition
Control flow construct in which a task is performed repeatedly. Also referred to as iteration.

Scope of a variable
The part of a program in which the variable can be used.
Sequence
Control flow construct in which tasks are preformed in a particular order.
Structured programming
A form of programming in which large, complex tasks are broken into smaller, simpler tasks.
Subprogram
A program within a program. Also called a function, method, procedure, or subroutine.
Truncation
Discarding part of value.
Two's complement
Binary representation for signed integers.
Two-dimensional array
An array whose elements are arrays. Also called an array of arrays.
Unicode
A 16-bit character encoding.
Variable
Named location in memory.
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